Taiwan options for Ukraine-style again-up satellite Internet network amid chance of war

When Russian forces knocked the Ukrainian city of Irpin offline in March, Tesla chief Elon Musk’s Starlink satellite World-wide-web company arrived to the rescue.

In just two days, the town – whose electrical power lines and cellular and Online networks were broken or wrecked – was back again on the net, and people could instantly get in contact with loved ones, according to studies.

Now, Taiwan – ever contending with the risk of a Chinese invasion – is using a leaf out of that handbook by location up a comparable again-up satellite World wide web network.

“The experience of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine… showed that the complete world can know what is occurring there in real time,” mentioned Taiwan’s Digital Minister Audrey Tang in new media interviews, conveying ideas to construct “digital resilience for all” in Taiwan.

In excess of the subsequent two decades, the island is set to demo a NT$550 million (S$24.67 million) satellite programme that aims to preserve Taiwan’s command systems operating if typical connections get cut, Ms Tang said.

A number of Taiwan firms are now in conversations with international satellite provider companies, she included, with no giving aspects.

New satellite World wide web products and services these types of as these presented by Starlink depend on a constellation of lower Earth orbit (LEO) satellites orbiting at an altitude of 550km that can beam the Internet into even the most distant areas from space.

Presently, intercontinental Online site visitors is mainly carried via fibre-optic cables lining the ocean flooring.

Taiwan is linked to the earth by means of 15 submarine details cables.

“The Internet made use of in Taiwan relies heavily on undersea cables, so if (attackers) cut off all the cables, they would slash off all of the Internet there,” Dr Lennon Chang, a cyber-safety researcher at Monash College, informed The Straits Situations.

“It tends to make feeling for the authorities to have alternate sorts of interaction ready for emergency cases,” he added.

Taiwan’s satellite demo programme will come amid soaring cross-strait tensions, which attained new heights in modern weeks in the wake of US Home Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s take a look at to the island in August. China, which views self-governing Taiwan as its own territory, deemed her excursion an infringement of its very own sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Beijing has under no circumstances renounced the use of pressure to convey Taiwan beneath its management, and responded to the visit by launching a collection of unprecedented army exercises, such as the firing of ballistic missiles about the island.

Already, some analysts say that considerations about Taiwan’s community vulnerabilities are very serious.

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High-speed internet in Alabama: State provides $82 million for ‘middle-mile’ network

Back in January, the Alabama Legislature and Gov. Kay Ivey approved a plan to spend $276 million of the state’s American Rescue Plan Act federal funds on the expansion of access to high-speed internet.

Today, Ivey and legislative leaders announced that $82 million of that would be used for a grant to help fund a “middle-mile” broadband network that officials said would have statewide impact.

Fiber Utility Network, a corporation formed by eight rural electric cooperatives, will create the network to connect more than 3,000 miles of new and existing fiber infrastructure over the next three years, officials said.

Leaders of the Republican and Democratic caucuses in the Alabama Senate and other legislators joined the governor for the announcement at 11 a.m. at Central Alabama Electric Cooperative in Prattville, one of the cooperatives that formed the new corporation. The other cooperatives are Coosa Valley, Covington, Cullman, Joe Wheeler, North Alabama, PowerSouth, and Tombigbee.

The “middle-mile” network will be the next step in an initiative Ivey and lawmakers have said is a priority for several years. Ivey said more than 300 Alabama cities and towns will benefit from the network.

“And once connected, it will give a whole lot more Alabama families the ability to opt to be customers to one of the last-mile service providers,” Ivey said. “If you’re at home or watching the news, what you care most about is being able to have working internet, plain and simple. Well folks, the middle mile, the infrastructure setting part of this journey, is exactly what’s going to get us there.”

Senate Majority Leader Clay Scofield, R-Guntersville, said broadband is essential for economic development, education and health care.

“Connectivity is the great equalizer. And I truly believe it will bring our most vulnerable communities into the 21st century,” Scofield said.

Senate Minority Leader Bobby Singleton, D-Greensboro, said high-speed internet can help bring hope to parts of the state that are short on jobs and resources, like electrical power did generations ago.

“Broadband is the new utility,” Singleton said. “It is the new power. It is the new water.”

Alabama’s effort to expand broadband access got a major boost when Congress approved the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA), a pandemic relief package that has sent billions of federal dollars to Alabama, including $2 billion for lawmakers to appropriate for state government purposes. The $276 billion for broadband comes from the state’s first $1 billion portion of ARPA funds. Legislators approved it in a special session in January. Legislators are expected to consider how to use the second $1 billion portion next year.

Last year, Ivey signed into law the Connect Alabama Act to set up a state government framework for making broadband available statewide. The Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, the agency spearheading the effort, released the Alabama Broadband Map and the Alabama Connectivity Plan in January.

The map showed that about 13 percent of 1.65 million addresses in Alabama do not have access to broadband service as defined by

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Solar Protocol network explores the potential of a solar-powered internet

Internet traffic is controlled by the “logic of the sun” in Solar Protocol, a solar-powered network whose creators argue for digital design within planetary limits.

Solar Protocol involves a series of solar-powered servers, set up in locations across the world’s time zones and serving its hosted websites from whichever spot is enjoying the most sunlight.

This subverts the typical operation of the internet, as usually when an internet user goes to access a website, their request is directed to whichever server gives them the quickest response — typically the one that is closest geographically.

The Solar Protocol website is one of three things currently hosted on the network

The website might load slower for someone using the Solar Protocol, but the process will make use of the most naturally available energy, so it is optimised in a different way.

The network’s creators — artists and New York University professors Tega Brain, Alex Nathanson and Benedetta Piantella — consider this the “logic of the sun”, a way of designing by considering earthly dynamics such as the sun’s interaction with the Earth.

They created Solar Protocol to get people thinking about the links between energy use and digital design, a topic that they say is hugely overlooked.

A solar panel sits on a rooftop, held in place by sand bags
The solar-powered servers are located all over the world, such as this one in Queens, New York

“In the field of computer science, there’s always been this idea of computing being unlimited and infinite,” Brain told Dezeen. “There’s not a culture of considering the material impacts and the fact that these systems are reliant on giant energy-sucking, water-sucking data centres that are all around the world.”

“A decision about, for example, whether you are going to run JavaScript or not, it doesn’t matter, it’s completely insignificant if it’s just one. But if you scale that on the level of Google or Facebook, and you have millions or billions of users, it’s enormously significant.

“We’re trying to develop a different approach to design and particularly to UX design, where this thinking currently doesn’t exist at all.”

“We’re really concerned about how to frame design as being within planetary limits and within the energy context,” added Nathanson.

The creators are keen to qualify that their project is a provocation about how we use the internet and not a solution to its energy issues.

They don’t advocate switching the entire internet to a solar protocol. Instead, they are using the experimental project to explore multiple intersecting ideas, including whether systems could be designed around “natural intelligence” as much as artificial intelligence, designing for intermittency, and questioning the primacy of high-resolution.

These ideas are explored on the Solar Protocol website and in a recent paper by the team on the site Computing Without Limits.

Aerial photo of a man sitting surrounded by wires and circuitry while talking to someone on an open laptop
The Solar Protocol creators worked with collaborators all over the world to set up the servers

In the paper, they take aim at some expected targets – Web3 technologies such as cryptocurrency, they

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European telecoms chiefs call on tech firms to share internet network costs | Telecommunications industry

The bosses of Europe’s biggest telecoms operators including BT, Vodafone and Deutsche Telekom have called for tech firms such as Netflix an Amazon to pay for some of the soaring costs of data fuelled by the global streaming and internet boom.

The call from the 16 chief executives comes as the European Commission prepares to launch a consultation into whether technology companies such as Google, Facebook, Netflix and Microsoft should be made to pay some of the soaring costs for the huge amount of global internet traffic they carry on their telecoms networks.

More than half of global internet traffic takes place through six Silicon Valley companies – Google, Facebook, Netflix, Apple, Amazon and Microsoft – according to ETNO, a lobby group for European telecoms operators. The proportion rises to as much as 80% when gaming giants such as the Call of Duty maker, Activision Blizzard, are included.

Much of the growth in data usage is driven by the streaming of shows such as the Netflix hit Bridgerton and Amazon’s The Lord of the Rings: The Rings of Power, which is based on the works of JRR Tolkien.

“We believe that the largest traffic generators should make a fair contribution to the sizeable costs they currently impose on European networks,” the telecoms chiefs said in a joint statement. “A fair contribution would send a clear financial signal for streamers in relation to the data growth associated with their use of scarce network resources.”

The statement says that European telecoms companies spend €50bn (£44.5bn) annually on building and maintaining full-fibre broadband and 5G networks.

The energy crisis and soaring costs of materials – fibre optic cable has doubled in price this year – is adding to the financial burden.

“In this context, the issue of ensuring a sustainable ecosystem for the internet and connectivity is more urgent than ever,” the companies said. “Timely action is a must. Europe missed out on many of the opportunities offered by the consumer internet. It must now swiftly build strength for the age of the metaverses.”

Streaming and internet companies say they do pay for their content through huge investment in systems that dramatically reduce the costs to telecoms companies.

These include vast networks of data servers that allow content to be delivered close to telecoms operators’ networks, shortening the distance data then travels and cost to consumers, with the Silicon Valley companies footing the bill for “transit charges”.

On Monday, Matt Brittin, the president of EMEA business and operations at Google, said last year the company spent more than €23bn in capital expenditure, much of which was on infrastructure.

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Linked to WiFi, But No Internet Relationship? What To Do

If you are doing the job from property, probabilities are, you have seasoned the agony of getting no web connection. You have gone from unit to unit pinpointing that there is no net connection, but it however says you have WiFi. It is baffling, but there are a handful of good reasons this can be going on. Let’s walk by means of how to take care of “no web connection” issues with your network.

 

Stage A person: Verify Regardless of whether Your Web Company Is Down

If all your devices get no net relationship, nonetheless your WiFi indicator is nevertheless on, the most clear response is that your world wide web provider has an outage. Just before you start rebooting and shuffling wires around, it is often a good concept to check this very first. Transform on the cellular info to your cellphone, and glimpse up your internet provider’s consumer-dealing with website or social media pages to see if an outage is outlined in your location. If you are not discovering the remedy you require right here, impartial web sites like Down Detector mixture outage information. Of study course, you can constantly contact your online company, to validate whether there is no online connection in your space due to a trouble with their assistance.

 

Action Two: Do a Reboot on Your Modem and/or Router

“Have you tried turning it off, and turning it on again?” It’s a answer so stupidly very simple, that it’s come to be a cliche. But it is a very simple deal with when you have no online connection, and you need to usually begin with the uncomplicated options 1st. If you only have a router and no modem, switch it off, and unplug it from the wall. Give it a minute to rest, then plug it back again in and switch it on all over again.

If you have both equally a router and a modem in your residence, electric power them the two off, unplug them, and hold out a minute or two. Then plug in the modem first, and after a moment, plug in the router. It frequently can take about five to 10 minutes for these devices to reboot and power back up once more. Then it’s time to go back again and test whether or not your gadgets are related all over again.

If you’re hunting for how to take care of “no world wide web connection” issues at your residence, this is one of the very best and most successful fixes. But, sometimes, even this doesn’t work. What to do then? It is time to attempt phase 3.

 

Action Three: Check out Your Router Options To Be certain Your Permissions are Accurate

When there is no world-wide-web relationship, however your online services or router is not the issue, then there may possibly be a challenge with your network permissions. Just about every residence WiFi network has “Media Accessibility Control” (MAC) identifiers that allow specific devices accessibility to your network.

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7.1 Networks | Networks and internet technologies

CHAPTER OVERVIEW


image By the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Describe local area networks (LANs)
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of LANs
  • Describe wireless local area networks (WLANs)
  • Describe the basic components of a network
  • Explain various types of connections
  • Discuss the basic components of a network, including workstations, servers and network devices
  • Describe how network connection speed is measured on wired and wireless networks
  • Explain how wired and wireless network communication works
  • Discuss the differences between the internet and an intranet
  • Define passwords in terms of basic network security
  • Discuss what usernames are
  • Describe what access rights are in terms of networks on web services
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of online communication

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Something to know

In 1973, the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the United States began researching the techniques and technologies needed to develop communication protocols that would allow computers in the same network to communicate with each other across multiple linked networks. This was called the “Internetting” project and it resulted in what we know as the internet today. This was also the first functioning example of LANs communicating with each other. Before this, computers could only communicate with each other if they were connected in the same network.

INTRODUCTION

In Grade 10, you learned about home area networks (HANs) and personal area networks (PANs). HANs are very small networks that usually cover a single home. PANs, on the other hand, are much smaller and are usually designed to serve a single user.

In this section, you will learn about local area networks and wide area networks and how they are generally used.

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NETWORKS AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES


UNIT
 7.1   Networks

In this unit, you will be focusing on:

  • LANs and WLANs
  • Basic network components
  • Network software
  • Network connections
  • Network communication

TYPES OF NETWORKS

LOCAL AREA NETWORKS

A local area network (LAN) is a small network of computers covering a small area, such as an office building or school. A wireless local area network (WLAN) is the same as a LAN but it has the ability to connect wireless devices such as smartphones, laptops and tablets to the LAN.

LANs may serve only one or two users (for example in a home) or they can serve hundreds of users (in an office building or on a school campus). No matter how many users LANs serve, they are all designed to share resources such as internet connections, printers or server connections. Most LANs use either wireless or wired connections or a combination of the two to connect devices. For example, desktop computers and laptops can be connected to the network with cables while the printer and mobile devices are connected using wireless connections.


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Figure 7.1: A LAN in which
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